See a man of middle stature, with a voice that combined sharpness in the enunciation of syllables and words, and softness in tone.
Martin Luther as Priest, Heretic, and Outlaw: The items described in this post were displayed in an exhibit of the same title in the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Building of the Library of Congress, October 3, —January 1, On October 31,Martin Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses against papal indulgences, or the atonement of sins through monetary payment, on the door of the church at Wittenberg, Germany.
Within less than four years, the Catholic Church would brand Luther a heretic, and the Holy Roman Empire would condemn him as an outlaw.
These were the early years of the Protestant Reformation, a turning point in history that would transform not only the Christian faith, but also the politics and society of all of Europe. Thanks to the new technology, his theses soon reached a broad circulation that surprised even Luther.
As he expanded his critique into other areas of church policy and the conflict with Rome intensified. Click on images to enlarge. Caption titles are linked to catalog record.
Luther the Priest When he posted his theses, Luther was a thirty-four-year-old priest and professor of theology at Wittenberg University, a provincial institution that had been founded only fifteen years earlier. Most depictions of Luther posting his theses show a defiant monk swinging his hammer against the church door, but the scene depicted here is probably more accurate: Luther composed his theses in Latin and intended them as the basis of a disputation, or scholarly debate, on papal indulgences.
Posting a notice for such an event on the doors of the church, which was affiliated with the university, was a common practice at the time.
The indulgence document shown below includes a space to fill in the name of the "contributor. He did so on the same day he posted the theses, including a copy of them with a letter to his archbishop, Albrecht of Mainz.
Catholic Church, Subcommissarius in Negotio Cruciatae. Pope Leo X and Albrecht were dividing the proceeds from the sale of indulgences to finance the lavish construction of St. In this context, the Ninety-five Theses were transformed from an academic agenda into a manifesto of church reform. Rome dispatched high-ranking clergy and theologians to debate Luther in disputations and offer him the opportunity to retract or mollify his views.
The debate at Leipzig in Julydocumented here, was a turning point. In debates with the formidable theologian Johannes Eck, Luther stood his ground in what was interpreted as a direct challenge to papal authority.
Johannes Eck and Dr. Martin Luther, Augustinian, which began July 4. In one of the most important works of the early Reformation, To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, Luther sought to forge alliances with these groups to bolster his reform of the church with a reform of German society.
In laying out his reforms, Luther argued that the state and its institutions should wield authority over the church. An den Christlichen Adel deutscher Nation: Concerning the Reform of the Christian Estate.
Luther the Heretic In the three years after he posted his Ninety-five Theses, Luther not only persisted in his critique of the church but expanded it to practically all areas of church authority in civil society and Christian faith.
The Catholic Church therefore faced not only a fundamental challenge to its institutions and practices, but one backed by the force of a new technology.
Having failed in its efforts to move Luther to recant, the church met this threat by branding Luther a heretic and rendering him up to the Holy Roman Empire for trial and punishment. Luther was not sure whether the rumored bull was a ruse concocted by Eck to threaten him into submission, or a genuine papal edict.
In the text Against the Bull of the Antichrist, Luther launched a preemptive attack and condemned "whoever wrote this bull" as the Antichrist. He challenged Eck and his other critics to "show that I am a heretic, or dry up their spittle.
The prominent woodcut portrait by Hans Baldung Grien is an example of the importance of artists in the growing popular awareness of Luther as an individual facing the arrayed powers of church and state. Commonly known by the Latin phrase in its opening lines, Exsurge, Domine Arise, O Lordthe bull accuses Luther of heresy and issues an ultimatum: Luther now had reason to fear for his life: Catholic Church, Pope Leo X.
Bulla contra errores Martini Lutheri et sequacium Decree against the errors of Martin Luther and his followers.
Luther drafted On the Freedom of a Christian with an accompanying letter to Pope Leo shortly after receiving the papal bull.
A manifesto of individual freedom in faith, On the Freedom of a Christian would become one of the most important documents in the establishment of a new, reformed church.
Facing the threats of excommunication and execution, Luther makes an impassioned plea for the individual liberty of the Christian in his personal relationship with God and his fellow man, unmediated by earthly powers.(Bayne, "Martin Luther", I, ) His whole Roman experience as expressed in later life is open to question.
"We can really question the importance attached to remarks which in a great measure date from the last years of his life, when he was really a changed man.
Priest, Catholicism, Religion - Brief Biography of Martin Luther. A Brief Biography of Dorothy Height Essay - Dorothy Height was born in Richmond, Virginia on March 24th, and died on April 20, at the age of 98 (Williams, ).
Martin Luther was born to Hans and Margarette Luther on 10 November in Eisleben, Saxony, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was baptized as a Catholic. His father was a leaseholder of copper mines and Place Of Birth: Eisleben, Germany.
John Calvin. John Calvin, Martin Luther's successor as the preeminent Protestant theologian, made a powerful impact on the fundamental doctrines of Protestantism. Martin Luther was a German priest who was a major figure in the Protestant Reformation.
A professor of theology and a former monk, he is credited to have started the Protestant Reformation in 16th-century Europe which changed the course of Western yunusemremert.com Of Birth: Eisleben, Germany.
Luther. On Oct 31, , a German Augustinian monk named Martin Luther, posted a document on the doors of the church you see above that included ninety five .