The main feminist motivation for making this distinction was to counter biological determinism or the view that biology is destiny. A typical example of a biological determinist view is that of Geddes and Thompson who, inargued that social, psychological and behavioural traits were caused by metabolic state. It would be inappropriate to grant women political rights, as they are simply not suited to have those rights; it would also be futile since women due to their biology would simply not be interested in exercising their political rights.
Psychoanalytic theory[ edit ] A number of theorists have influenced the field of gender studies significantly, specifically in terms of psychoanalytic theory.
Ettingerand Mark Blechner. Gender studied under the lens of each of these theorists looks somewhat different. Both male and female subjects participate in the "phallic" organization, and the feminine side of sexuation is "supplementary" and not opposite or complementary.
In other words, the sexuation of an individual has as much, if not more, to do with their development of a gender identity as being genetically sexed male or female. She contends that patriarchal cultures, like individuals, have to exclude the maternal and the feminine so that they can come into being.
Ettinger transformed subjectivity in contemporary psychoanalysis since the early s with the Matrixial  feminine-maternal and prematernal Eros  of borderlinking bordurelianceborderspacing bordurespacement and co-emergence. The matrixial feminine difference defines a particular gaze  and it is a source for trans-subjectivity and transjectivity  in both males and females.
Ettinger rethinks the human subject as informed by the archaic connectivity to the maternal and proposes the idea of a Demeter-Persephone Complexity. Blechner identifies the terror, in Western males, of penetration. Yet in many societies, being gay is defined only by being a male who lets himself be penetrated.
Males who penetrate other males are considered masculine and not gay and are not the targets of prejudice. Ettinger, Shoshana FelmanGriselda Pollock Luce Irigaray and Jane Flax have developed a Feminist psychoanalysis and argued that psychoanalytic theory is vital to the feminist project and must, like other theoretical traditions, be criticized by women as well as transformed to free it from vestiges of sexism i.
Shulamith Firestonein "The Dialectic of Sex" calls Freudianism the misguided feminism and discusses how Freudianism is almost completely accurate, with the exception of one crucial detail: Critics such as Elizabeth Grosz accuse Jacques Lacan of maintaining a sexist tradition in psychoanalysis.
Ettinger and Jane Gallop have used Lacanian work, though in a critical way, to develop gender theory. Marchand, "The gender studies and queer theory are rather reluctant, hostile to see the psychoanalytic approach.
Post-modern influence[ edit ] The emergence of post-modernism theories affected gender studies,  causing a movement in identity theories away from the concept of fixed or essentialist gender identity, to post-modern  fluid  or multiple identities.
Post-structuralism paved the way for the emergence of queer theory in gender studies, which necessitated the field expanding its purview to sexuality. ConnellMichael Kimmeland E. Feminists argue that this erases the categories of gender altogether but does nothing to antagonize the power dynamics reified by gender.
In other words, the fact that gender is socially constructed does not undo the fact that there are strata of oppression between genders. Development of theory[ edit ] History[ edit ] The history of gender studies looks at the different perspectives of gender.
This discipline examines the ways in which historical, cultural, and social events shape the role of gender in different societies. The field of gender studies, while focusing on the differences between men and women, also looks at sexual differences and less binary definitions of gender categorization.
This was due to the increasing interest in lesbian and gay rights, and scholars found that most individuals will associate sexuality and gender together, rather than as separate entities.T1 - Is his heroism hailed and hers hidden? Women, men, and the social construction of heroism.
AU - Rankin, Lindsay E. AU - Eagly, Alice H. PY - /12/1. Y1 - /12/1. N2 - Two studies examined how the social construction of heroism affects the representation of women and men as heroes. love this post, lisa. a fascinating little case study with uses and applications not only for gender studies but also for sport scholarship, research on body culture, and theories of social change.
also, on a much different note, reminded me of a editor's column chris and I wrote in Contexts about being cheerleaders for social science.
have to. The goal of this task is to examine why some of men's actions worked against gender inequality while others sustained it, and similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and others that reinforced it. An Analysis of the Construction and Representation of Gender in X-Men Movies PAGES 1.
WORDS View Full Essay. More essays like this: x man, gender in x men, doctor jean grey, wolverine.
Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Exactly what I needed. Constructions of masculinity and their inﬂuence on men’s well-being: a theory of gender and health Will H.
Courtenay* Sonoma State University, CA, USA Abstract Men in the United States su•er more severe chronic conditions, have higher death rates for all 15 leading causes of . DeMarchi, Mary Louise, "Avenging women: an analysis of postfeminist female representation in the cinematic Marvel’s Avengers series" ().
College of Liberal Arts & Social Sciences Theses and Dissertations.