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Forces[ edit ] All four of the known fundamental forces are mediated by fields, which in the Standard Model of particle physics result from exchange of gauge bosons.
Specifically the four fundamental interactions to be unified are: The exchange particle that mediates this force is the gluon. The photon is the exchange particle for this force.
It is mediated by the W and Z bosons. The postulated exchange particle has been named the graviton. Modern unified field theory attempts to bring these four interactions together into a single framework.
Classic theory[ edit ] The first successful classical unified field theory was developed by James Clerk Maxwell. Until then, electricity and magnetism had been thought of as unrelated phenomena. InMaxwell published his famous paper on a dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field.
This was the first example of a theory that was able to encompass previously separate field theories namely electricity and magnetism to provide a unifying theory of electromagnetism. In the years following the creation of the general theory, a large number of physicists and mathematicians enthusiastically participated in the attempt to unify the then-known fundamental interactions.
In Kaluza—Klein theorythe gravitational curvature of the extra spatial direction behaves as an additional force similar to electromagnetism. These and other models of electromagnetism and gravity were pursued by Albert Einstein in his attempts at a classical unified field theory.
This system is heuristically the super-classical [Varadarajan] limit of the not mathematically well-defined quantum electrodynamics. One can extend this system to include the weak and strong nuclear forces to get the Einstein—Yang—Mills—Dirac System.
The French physicist Marie-Antoinette Tonnelat published a paper in the early s on the standard commutation relations for the quantized spin-2 field. In the s Mendel Sachs proposed a generally covariant field theory that did not require recourse to renormalisation or perturbation theory.
InTonnelat published a book on the state of research on unified field theories. Modern progress[ edit ] In American physicist Sheldon Glashow proposed that the weak nuclear forceelectricity and magnetism could arise from a partially unified electroweak theory.
This unified theory modeled the electroweak interaction as a force mediated by four particles: As a result of the spontaneous symmetry breaking, the weak force becomes short-range and the W and Z bosons acquire masses of Their theory was first given experimental support by the discovery of weak neutral currents in Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer received the Prize in InSheldon Glashow and Howard Georgi proposed unifying the strong and electroweak interactions into the Georgi—Glashow modelthe first Grand Unified Theorywhich would have observable effects for energies much above GeV.
Since then there have been several proposals for Grand Unified Theories, e. A major problem for experimental tests of such theories is the energy scale involved, which is well beyond the reach of current accelerators.
Grand Unified Theories make predictions for the relative strengths of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces, and in LEP determined that supersymmetric theories have the correct ratio of couplings for a Georgi—Glashow Grand Unified Theory.
Many Grand Unified Theories but not Pati—Salam predict that the proton can decayand if this were to be seen, details of the decay products could give hints at more aspects of the Grand Unified Theory.
It is at present unknown if the proton can decay, although experiments have determined a lower bound of years for its lifetime.The discussion of explanation went wrong at the very beginning when explanation was conceived of as a relation like description: a relation between a theory and a fact.
Really, it is a three-term relation between theory, fact, and context. A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.
As yet, no unified field theory has broad support among physicists, though progress has been made toward unifying some of the forces. In Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, and Steven Weinberg developed an electroweak theory that united electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force.
They called such a theory, modestly, a Grand Unified Theory (GUT). At around the same time, Weinberg and Georgi along with Helen Quinn noticed something interesting—following the work of Frank Wilczek, David Gross, and David Politzer.
string theory is discussed in detail, both in the framework of d = 10 and the d = 11 M-theory. Especially for the discussion of unification and supersymmetry breakdown. Unification ontology is a theory that supports the theory of the Original Image. Further, the theory of the Original Image is a deductive theory based on the Unification Principle.