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Publications and Resources Mental Disorders Get the facts on common mental disorders, such as those related to anxiety, attention deficit, conduct, depression, schizophrenia, and trauma. The following are descriptions of the most common categories of mental illness in the United States.
Anxiety Disorders Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive fear or anxiety that is difficult to control and negatively and substantially impacts daily functioning.
Fear refers to the emotional response to a real or perceived threat while anxiety is the anticipation of a future threat. These disorders can range from specific fears called phobiassuch as the fear of flying or public speaking, to more generalized feelings of worry and tension.
Anxiety disorders typically develop in childhood and persist to adulthood. Specific anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder GADpanic disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder social phobia. Phobias and generalized anxiety usually first appear around age 11, and they are the most prevalent anxiety disorders in adults.
Evidence suggests that many anxiety disorders may be caused by a combination of genetics, biology, and environmental factors. Adverse childhood experiences may also contribute to risk for developing anxiety disorders.
PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH ALCOHOLISM. Independent Major Depression. alcohol dependence at an earlier age than their nonantisocial counterparts and are also more prone to having other drug use disorders (Cadoret et al. ; Anthenelli et al. ). Because heavy alcohol use can cause psychological . Home Co-occurring Disorders 5 Most Common Disorders with Addictions Some conditions seem destined to come in pairs. Heart disease often follows a diagnosis of diabetes, for example, and allergies often come hand in hand with asthma. People with alcohol use disorders drink to excess, Once people are stabilized, they may need help resolving psychological issues associated with problem drinking. There are several approaches available for treating alcohol problems. "Cognitive-behavioral treatment with adult alcohol and illicit drug users: A meta-analysis of randomized.
Children with ADHD have difficulty performing well in school, interacting with other children, and following through on tasks. Adults with ADHD are often extremely distractible and have significant difficulties with organization.
There are three sub-types of the disorder: The disorder occurs four times as often among boys than girls.
It is estimated that the prevalence of ADHD among adults is 2. Current research suggests that ADHD has a high degree of heritability, however, the exact gene or constellation of genes that give rise to the disorder are not known.
Environmental risk factors may include low birth weight, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, exposure to lead, and history of child maltreatment. The three overarching features of ADHD include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
Inattentive children may have trouble paying close attention to details, make careless mistakes in schoolwork, are easily distracted, have difficulty following through on tasks, such as homework assignments, or quickly become bored with a task. Hyperactivity may be defined by fidgeting or squirming, excessive talking, running about, or difficulty sitting still.
Bipolar and Related Disorders People with bipolar and related disorders experience atypical, dramatic swings in mood, and activity levels that go from periods of feeling intensely happy, irritable, and impulsive to periods of intense sadness and feelings of hopelessness.
Individuals with this disorder experience discrete mood episodes, characterized as either a: Manic episode—abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood accompanied by increased energy or activity that substantially impairs functioning Hypomanic episode—similar to a manic episode, however not severe enough to cause serious social or occupational problems Major depressive episode—persistent depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure Mixed state—includes symptoms of both a manic episode and a major depressive episode People exhibiting these symptoms are most frequently identified as having one of two types of bipolar disorders: The bipolar II diagnosis is used when there has been a more regular occurrence of depressive episodes along with a hypomanic episode, but not a full-blown manic episode.
Cyclothymic disorder, or cyclothymia, is a diagnosis used for a mild form of bipolar disorder. The combined prevalence of bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder and cyclothymia is estimated at 2.
A family history of bipolar disorder is the strongest risk factor for the condition, and the level of risk increases with the degree of kinship.
As mentioned previously, bipolar disorders are characterized by manic and depressive episodes. In children, manic episodes may present as an excessively silly or joyful mood that is unusual for the child or an uncharacteristically irritable temperament and are accompanied by unusual behavioral changes, such as decreased need for sleep, risk-seeking behavior, and distractibility.
Depressive episodes may present as a persistent, sad mood, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, and loss of interest in previously enjoyable activities.
Behavioral changes associated with depressive episodes may include fatigue or loss of energy, gaining or losing a significant amount of weight, complaining about pain, or suicidal thoughts or plans.
Find more information about bipolar disorder on the NIMH website. They are characterized by a sad, hopeless, empty, or irritable mood, and somatic and cognitive changes that significantly interfere with daily life. Major depressive disorder MDD is defined as having a depressed mood for most of the day and a marked loss of interest or pleasure, among other symptoms present nearly every day for at least a two-week period.
In children and adolescents, MDD may manifest as an irritable rather than a sad disposition. MDD is thought to have many possible causes, including genetic, biological, and environmental factors.Women who have had an abortion have an 81% higher risk of subsequent mental health problems compared to women who have not had an abortion.
Women who aborted have a % higher risk of mental health problems compared to women who have given birth. Approximately 2% to 5% of Axis I disorders and 4% to 7% of Axis II disorders were attributable to harsh physical punishment. CONCLUSIONS: Harsh physical punishment in the absence of child maltreatment is associated with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse/dependence, and personality disorders in a general population sample.
Finally, mental disorders in children are associated with an increased risk for mental disorders in adulthood (6), which are associated with decreased productivity, increased substance use and injury, and substantial costs to the individual and society (31,32).
Using a standardized statistical technique for combining the results of multiple studies, the meta-analysis revealed that women with a history of abortion face higher rates of anxiety (34 percent higher) and depression (37 percent higher), heavier alcohol use ( percent higher) and marijuana use ( percent higher), and higher rates of suicidal behavior ( percent higher).
Additionally, the level of substance use, particularly cocaine, strongly associated with levels of childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse as well as current PTSD symptoms.
There was a significant additive effect of number of types of childhood trauma experienced with lifetime cocaine dependence in predicting current PTSD symptoms, . No one really doubts the phenomena of birds and bees. But to call birds and bees miracles and to create a miracle-maker god who created them is a certain kind of fraudulent leap.