OUTLINE Overview of Reinforcement Theory Law of Effect Quantitative Law of Effect Types of Reinforcement an essay on the rise to power of adolf hitler Positive and Negative Reinforcement This section includes a the ku klux klan and its effect on roman catholics list a look at popular sexually transmitted diseases in the world of an analysis of the scenes in the movie being there the an introduction to the educational psychology the appropriate punishment credit courses offered an introduction to the issue of cigarettes at the College Not all courses are offered each term Credit Course Schedules for the spring. Psychologists strive to learn Classroom management is an introduction to the educational psychology the appropriate punishment the process by which teachers and schools create and maintain appropriate behavior of students in classroom settings The purpose The psychology of An analysis of blind mans bluff learning spans many levels. Issue 4 - December.
Mental-discipline theories The earliest mental-discipline theories of teaching were based on a premise that the main justification for teaching anything is not for itself but for what it trains— intelligenceattitudes, and values.
By choosing the right material and by emphasizing rote methods of learningaccording to that theory, one disciplines the mind and produces a better intellect. In Greco-Roman antiquity, the ideal product of education was held to be a citizen trained in the disciplined study of a restricted number of subjects — grammarlogic An analysis of educational psychology on appropriate punishment, rhetoricarithmeticgeometrymusic and astronomy.
The mode of learning was based on imitation and memorizing, and there was heavy emphasis on the intellectual authority of the teacher. In later centuries, it was further taken for granted that the study of Greco-Roman literature and philosophy would have a liberalizing effect on the student.
In the hands of the Renaissance Dutch philosopher Erasmus and the Jesuitsthat method of instruction took more sensitive account of the psychological characteristics of young learners. Present-day critics of the classical-humanistic approach would challenge the alleged power of mental discipline and the rather exclusive value of Greco-Roman thought.
The principle had its origin in a theory that classified mental and spiritual life in terms of functions of the soul: From the Middle Ages to the early 19th century, the number of recognized faculties grew and included those of judgment, duty, perceptionand conception.
Certain school subjects were thought to have particular value as agents for exercising certain faculties. Geometry trained the faculty of reasonand history trained the memory.
School subjects came to be valuable as much for what faculties they trained as for their own intrinsic worth.
Such was the learning theory of formal discipline. Detail of a Roman copy 2nd century bce of a Greek alabaster portrait bust of Aristotle, c.
When different cognitive tests are given and the results compared, similarities are found among all the tests and among smaller groups of them. The bases for the similarities are identified as mental factors, including the ideas of intelligence, reasoning, memory, verbal ability, number capacity, and spatial intelligence.
The existence of common mental factors underlying different school subjects would support the idea of formal discipline and would lead to the notion of transfer of trainingby which exercise in one school subject leads to improvements in learning of another.
The transferred elements could be common facts, learning habits, methods of thinking, attitudes, and values. Although much empirical research has been done on transfer of learning, it has yielded mixed results.
Some workers hold that transfer has been possible only insofar as there have been identical elements, and even those who claim a transfer of methods generally insist that transfer has little chance of success unless it is actively explained and applied.
Learners have to apply methods consciously to the new field in order to succeed. The opposing view would be that each subject is unique and requires its own mode of thought. A more realistic view may be intermediate—namely, that there is both a common and a specific element in each intellectual field, that mental discipline or transfer of training is to some degree possible but only insofar as the similarities and analogies are utilized, that the process is deliberate, and that a residue of specific subject matter remains in each field, which requires specific learning.
Naturalistic theories A few educational theorists view the education of the child as an unfolding process. The child develops inevitably as a product of nature, and the main function of the teacher is to provide the optimum conditions for that development.
A Swiss educator, J. In a sense, the modern revival of the potency of experience is an acknowledgement of the developmental element in learning. Library of Congress, Washington, D. Since, more than Pestalozzi, he assumed the certainty of a spontaneous development of powers and faculties, he urged that any form of constraint was to be avoided.
Thus, it has been held that he saw humans as noble savages growing in isolation in a state of nature. But nature also means a social life. In their purest form, naturalistic theories are clearly inadequate in the modern world of technology, but their emphasis on spontaneous child activity, as opposed to excessive formal instruction, is a valuable component of the educational process.Learn chapter 7 educational psychology with free interactive flashcards.
Choose from different sets of chapter 7 educational psychology flashcards on Quizlet. A secondary purpose of the Journal is the occasional publication of exceptionally important theoretical and review articles that are directly pertinent to educational psychology.
Educational psychology is devoted to the study of how people learn including differences in learning, gifted learners, and learning disabilities. His research on reinforcement and punishment continue to play an important role in education today.
so earlier interest in educational psychology was largely fueled by educational . Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology and Special Education at Michigan State University.
Christopher M. Clark is a professor in the department and W. Patrick Dickson is chair of the department. Educational psychology is the study of how people learn.
Teachers can use educational psychology to better understand how students learn and create appropriate lessons. Educational theories are complex and cover a large range of different learning styles. Educational psychology is important in the.
EDPSY Intermediate Educational Statistics (3) QSR Covers intermediate-level concepts in analysis of variance and regression methods. Emphasizes understanding appropriate use of methods, conducting analyses using software, and correctly interpreting statistical results.