Because of the high prevalence of this disease, all patients with P. The current recommendation for the treatment of uncomplicated P.
History[ edit ] The effects of W. Ancient Greek and Roman writers noted the similarities between the enlarged limbs and cracked skin of infected individuals to that of elephants.
Since then, this condition has been commonly known as elephantiasis. The adult worm is long, cylindrical, slender, and smooth with rounded ends. It is white in colour and almost transparent. The body is quite delicate making it difficult to remove from tissues.
It has a short cephalic or head region connected to the main body by a short neck which appears as a constriction. There are dark spots which are dispersed nuclei throughout the body cavity, with no nuclei at the tail tip. Male and female can be differentiated by size and structure of tail tip.
The male worm is smaller, 40 millimetres 1. The tip of the tail has 15 pairs of minute caudal papillae, the sensory organs.
The anal region is an elaborate structure consisting of 12 pairs of papillae, of which 8 are in front and 4 are behind the anus.
In contrast, the female is 60 millimetres 2. Its tail gradually tapers and rounded at the tip. There are no additional sensory structures. Its vulva lies towards the anterior region, about 0. Adult male and female are most often coiled together and are difficult to separate.
Females are ovoviviparous and can produce thousands of juveniles known as microfilariae. Human beings serve as the definitive host and mosquitoes as their intermediate hosts. The adult parasites reside in the lymphatics of the human host.
They are found mostly in the afferent lymphatic channels of the lymph glands in the lower part of the body. The first-stage larvae, known as microfilariaeare present in the circulation.
The microfilariae have a membrane "sheath". This sheath, along with the area in which the worms reside, makes identification of the species of microfilariae in humans easier to determine.
The microfilariae are found mainly in the peripheral blood and can be found at peak amounts from 10 p. They migrate between the deep and the peripheral circulation exhibiting unique diurnal periodicity.
During the day, they are present in the deep veins, and during the night, they migrate to the peripheral circulation.
The cause of this periodicity remains unknown, but the advantages of the microfilariae being in the peripheral blood during these hours may ensure the vector, the nighttime mosquito, will have a higher chance of transmitting them elsewhere.
Physiological changes also are associated with sleeping, such as lowered body temperature, oxygen tension and adrenal activity, and an increased carbon dioxide tension, among other physical alterations, any of which could be the signals for the rhythmic behavior of microfilarial parasites.
If the hosts sleep by day and are awake at night, their periodicity is reversed. In the South Pacific, where W. The microfilariae are transferred into a vectorwhich are most commonly mosquito species of the genera CulexAnophelesMansonia, and Aedes.
Inside the mosquito, the microfilariae mature into motile larvae called juveniles, these migrate to the labium after a period of approximately ten days. When the infected mosquito has its next blood meal, W. The larvae move through the lymphatic system to regional lymph nodes, predominantly in the legs and genital area.
The larvae develop into adult worms over the course of a year, and reach sexual maturity in the afferent lymphatic vessels. After mating, the adult female worm can produce thousands of microfilariae that migrate into the bloodstream.
A mosquito vector can bite the infected human host, ingest the microfilariae, and thus repeat the life cycle. It is of note that the organism does not multiply within its intermediate host the mosquito. Recently, million worldwide cases of lymphatic filariasis were estimated.
The mosquito vectors of W. There is no reservoir host,  and the disease could therefore potentially be eradicated. Pathology[ edit ] The pathogenesis of W.
After infection, the worms will mature within 6—8 months, male and female worms will mate and then release the microfilariae.Elephantiasis is often associated with lymphatic filariasis when the disease is associated with filarial nematodes, and these worms have a very intricate way of entering the human body.
Transmission of Elephantiasis, Filarial nematodes and Wolbachia. Taenia Solium - Pork Tapeworm. The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, is the most harmful tapeworm in yunusemremert.com solium infection is acquired either from human feces that contains Taenia solium eggs or from uncooked pork which contains larval cysts.
If larvae are ingested, they mature into adults in the small intestine. This infection type is called taeniasis and is often asymptomatic. Parasitic worms transferred to people by infected mosquitoes can block the lymphatic system, causing the puffiness and swelling of lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis).
Lymphatic filiariasis Worm larvae that make their way into lymph vessels can mature into adult worms. Lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a painful and profoundly disfiguring yunusemremert.com the infection is usually acquired in childhood, its visible manifestations occur later in life, causing temporary or permanent disability.
It's bad enough looking at slimy creepy crawlies outside around us which give us chills down our spines and send us screaming for cover. They look evil and slimy and they can do terrible things to us.
Worm larvae deposited by the bite of an infected mosquito enter the body and migrate to the lymphatic system, where they mature into adult worms. The thread-like parasitic worms can live and reproduce in the body for years.