For if a soldier is a wedge, a woman is a needle; being, so to speak, all point, at least at the two extremities. Add to this the power of making herself practically invisible at will, and you will perceive that a female, in Flatland, is a creature by no means to be trifled with. His father was an educator and also called Edwin. As a young man, Edwin Abbott Abbott was an outstanding student, winning medals and honours for mathematics, classics and theology.
A Chronology of Edwin A. Although not even acknowledged in the Dictionary of National Biography entry for its author, Edwin Abbott Abbott —it has become the best-known work of this late Victorian educator and theologian.
Flatland continues to charm modern readers by opening our imaginations to the possibility of a fourth and higher dimensions, but in its own day, it also participated in wider controversies about science, religion, and the social order.
Abbott, a Cambridge University graduate and Anglican clergyman, was best known as headmaster of the City of London School, a position he held from to By all accounts a gifted teacher, he wrote various studies of grammar and rhetoric and supported the broadening of the classical curriculum that was conventional to English public schools at the time through the addition of English literature and science.
There was considerable British interest in the idea of a fourth dimension of space in the s and s.
Perseus Publishing,pp. The Discourses of Knowledge and Power Boston: Hall, Unfortunately, like Gulliver, the Square also ends up alienated from his own society and unable to communicate his insights to his peers.
However, there is much that is suggestive of Victorian conventions in this imaginary world. The history of the nineteenth century did in fact record the steady progress of the English middle classes in social and political power, as their growing importance in industry, commerce, and professional life translated into increased voting rights and access to the kinds of education and culture once open only to the gentry and aristocracy.
The working-class Isosceles triangles, if they increase the size of their angles their social status at all, usually do so only in half-degree increments per generation p. The Square is largely silent on how the equilateral or tradesman class develops into the square or gentlemanly one although he mentions that his father is a triangle on p.
This enforcement became all the more anxious as the extension of educational and cultural opportunities to the lower and lower middle classes after the Education Act of increasingly blurred this distinction. The lower-middle classes were equally invested in emphasizing their superiority to what they considered to be the less respectable classes below them.
Conveniently for the Flatland status quo, any progress toward respectable equilateral status that a lower-class Isosceles could hope for was contingent upon behaviour that served the state like success through military service or that reinforced conformity and thus social stability, like hard work, frugality, and self-control p.
While British history records nothing like the rebellions and lesser outbreaks p.
Disorderly agitations for the widening of the franchise during the Chartist movement of the s and preceding the Second Reform Act in put middleclass anxieties about social order on edge, and the rise of socialism and anarchism in the s kept them there.
Blackwell, Appearing to provide biological sanction for the status quo, such pseudosciences in actuality helped to construct and to rationalize the hierarchies that they purported merely to describe.
Their belief that inequalities were removable was enshrined in the Victorian best-seller Self-Help by Samuel Smiles, a work that rooted individual progress in striving and self-discipline.
Modern Library, Macmillan,24—5. Satire often proves to be a slippery weapon. Mill argued, the result of culturally restricted roles.
Routledge, Women were excluded from Oxford and Cambridge until the s and could not earn degrees there until the s. As an educator, Abbott strongly supported attempts to expand educational opportunities for women. Ellsworth, Liberators of the Female Mind: Greenwood Press,—5, Flatland participated in a debate about the limits of human knowledge that embraced science, mathematics, and religion in the second half of the nineteenth century.
Fossil discoveries raised questions about the accuracy of biblical chronology.Kindle e-Readers Kindle eBooks Prime Reading Kindle Unlimited Kindle Exam Central Kindle eTextbooks Best Sellers Indian language eBooks Free Kindle Reading Apps Content and devices Kindle eBooks Prime Reading KindleReviews: Edwin Abbott Abbott's novella is both a satire of the rigid social structures of Victorian England and a mind-bending look at the mathematical possibilities of the world around us.
For this second reason, Abbott's charming thought experiment is much loved by students and teachers of mathematics, physics and computer science. Find great deals for Spaceland: A Novel of the Fourth Dimension by Rudy Rucker (, Hardcover, Revised).
Shop with confidence on eBay! Flatland, written by Edwin Abbott is unlike many of other pieces of science writing we read nowadays. This is mainly because of the concept of people being represented by geometric figures and also because the book was written back in when the ideology was much different to present times.
Flatland: a romance of many dimensions (Illustrated) by Abbott, Edwin Abbott, - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. O Scribd é o maior site social de leitura e publicação do mundo.
influenced by mathematics or spatial awareness? The course format emphasizes Flatland - A Romance in Many Dimensions, Abbott, Edwin A. New Jersey: Flatland, Edwin Abbott Characters are plane figures Carefully crafted scale Satire Women’s plight.