Chiefdoms of Hispaniola Successive waves of Arawak migrants, moving northward from the Orinoco delta in South America, settled the islands of the Caribbean. They were organized into cacicazgos chiefdomseach led by a cacique chief. When he returned in on his second voyage he found the settlement had been destroyed and all 39 settlers killed.
Decolonization and Nationalism Triumphant The late 20th century was not the first time that empires disintegrated. Rome comes to mind. And of course the American Revolution ended one kind of European imperial experiment.
But in all those cases, Empire struck back Britain lost its 13 colonies, but later controlled half of Africa and all of India.
And what makes the recent decolonization so special is that at least so far, no empires have emerged to replace the ones that fell. As a reward, please hand in your rifle and return to your state of subjugation.
So, post-war decolonization happened all over the place: By the way, is this Gandhi or is this Ben Kingsley playing Gandhi?
And the Dutch East Indies became Indonesia. But of course when we think about decolonization, we mostly think about Africa going to this. So to oversimplify here, because we have to, decolonization throughout Afro-Eurasia had some similar characteristics.
Because it occurred in the context of the Cold War, many of these new nations had to choose between socialist and capitalist influences, which shaped their futures. While many of these new countries eventually adopted some form of democracy, the road there was often rocky.
Also, decolonization often involved violence, usually the overthrow of colonial elites. The most famous nonviolent-- or supposedly so, anyway-- decolonization: The story begins, more or less, in with the founding of the Indian National Congress.
Congress Party leaders and other nationalists in India were usually from the elite classes. But they were interested in creating a modern Indian nation rather than a return to some ancient pre-colonial form, possibly because India was-- and is--hugely diverse and really only unified into a single state when under imperial rule by one group or another, whether the Mauryans, the Guptas, the Mughals, or the British.
The best known Indian nationalist, Mohandas K. Gandhi, was a fascinating character. In terms of decolonization, he stands out for his use of nonviolence and his linking it to a somewhat mythologized view of Indian history.
In this they were less practical than their contemporary, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the Muslim League who felt-- to quote historian Ainslie Embree-- "that the unified India of which the Congress spoke was an artificial one, created and maintained by British bayonets.
As people left their homes, sometimes unwillingly, there was violence, and all tolled as many as half a million people were killed, more than died in the bloody Indonesian battle for independence.
All this violence devastated Gandhi, whose lengthy and repeated hunger strikes to end violence had mixed results, and who was eventually assassinated by a Hindu nationalist who felt that Gandhi was too sympathetic to Muslims.
Since independence, India has largely been a success story. So, the Dutch exploited their island colonies with the system of cultuurstelsel, in which all peasants had to set aside one fifth of their land to grow cash crops for export to the Netherlands.
Over in the French colonies of Indochina, so called because they were neither Indian nor Chinese, things were even more violent.
And then the Americans learned that there was a land war available in Asia, so they quickly took over from the French and communists did not fully control Vietnam until Despite still being ostensibly communist, Vietnam now manufactures all kinds of stuff that we like in America, especially sneakers.
More about that later, but now to Egypt. So while technically Egypt had been independent sinceit was very dependent independence.
But, that changed in the s, when the king was overthrown by the army. So once in power, Nasser and the army banned the Muslim Brotherhood, forcing it underground, where it would disappear and never become an issue again. One of the most problematic legacies of colonialism was its geography.
Colonial boundaries became redefined as the borders of new nation states, even where those boundaries were arbitrary or, in some cases, pernicious. The best known example is in Rwanda, where two very different tribes, the Hutu and the Tutsis were combined into one nation.
Europeans claimed to bring civilization and economic development to their colonies, but this economic development focused solely on building infrastructure to get resources and export them. Now whether European powers deliberately sabotaged development in Africa is a hot-button topic I'm going to stay well away from, but this much is inarguably true: They had very few schools, for instance, and even fewer universities.
Like, when the Congo achieved independence from Belgium inthere were sixteen college graduates in a country of fourteen million people. Also, in many of these new countries, the traditional elites had been undermined by imperialism. And once the Europeans left, those local rulers, the upper classes, were seen as illegitimate collaborators.Although historians are agreed that the French Revolution started in , they are divided on the end date.
A few histories stop in with the creation of the Directory, some stop in with the creation of the Consulate, while many more stop in , when Napoleon Bonaparte became Consul for Life, or when he became Emperor.
was a series of meetings in , during which the European leaders sought to establish long lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon. The Radical Period of The French Revolution By the end of , Europe was preparing to witness the end of a seemingly triumphant revolution in France.
The country was restructuring its government in a forceful and bloodless manner, while the tyrant King Louis the XVI agreed to the demands of the masses (albeit without much choice).
In England the bourgeoisie was effecting a great world-historical revolution in production, while across the English Channel, the French were carrying out an equally great revolution in politics. In backward Germany, where social relations lagged behind France and England, the only revolution was a revolution in men's minds.
The social factors contributing to the start of the French Revolution included social stress from a large population as well as the intrusion of capitalism into everyday life and the consequent social disparities.
An economy in crisis following France's involvement in the American Revolution as well. In Vietnam, the French fought communist-led nationalists, especially Ho Chi Minh from almost the moment World War II ended until , when the French were defeated.
And then the Americans learned that there was a land war available in Asia, so they quickly took over from the French and communists did not fully control Vietnam until