What is a hypothesis?
Employment Opportunities Playing Games with a Purpose: Teaching Two-Sample Hypothesis Tests We usually think of games as a pleasant distraction—just something we do for fun. However, growing evidence suggests that games can do more than keep us entertained, especially when it comes to learning in a classroom setting.
Not traditional board games like Monopoly or Chutes and Ladders, but interactive computer games—the types of games younger generations have grown up with. Shonda Kuiper, associate professor and chair of the mathematics and statistics department at Grinnell College, Kevin Cummiskey, assistant professor at the United States Military Academy, and Colonel Rod Sturdivant, associate and academy professor at the United States Military Academy, have been exploring the use of computer games in their classrooms for many years.
Defining Hypothesis Testing Of the many topics taught to students in introductory-level statistics courses, hypothesis testing is among the most challenging to understand at the conceptual level.
Hypothesis tests are statistical procedures that evaluate two mutually exclusive statements about a population. These two statements are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.
They are always statements about population attributes, such as the value of a parameter, the difference between corresponding parameters of multiple populations, or the type of distribution that best describes the population. A hypothesis test uses sample data to determine which statement is best supported by the data.
Examples of questions you can answer with a hypothesis test include: Is the average time to complete a Tangrams game less than 2 minutes? Is the average completion time of a game different for males and females? Do science and engineering majors complete games more quickly than other majors?
Players must solve a puzzle in which they cover an image by flipping, rotating, and moving a set of shapes.
The web interface of the Tangrams puzzle game. The students can download the data set for the entire class, which is available for immediate use through the website.
Students take on the role of a researcher by selecting from a wide variety of independent variables to explain why some students complete the game faster than others.
For example, a student may decide to investigate whether game completion times differ based on the type of music played in the background, and then translate this research question into a testable hypothesis.
Next, students can analyze their data by calculating summary statistics and plotting histograms of the Tangrams completion times in statistical software such as Minitab. This makes the analysis engaging for students, because they must discuss and make decisions about data cleaning, such as whether to remove outliers.
Then they must check assumptions, conduct appropriate statistical significance tests, and state their conclusions. Specifically, the class wants to answer the following research question: Are students who major in math, science, and engineering faster at completing the puzzle than students majoring in other subjects?
Prior to starting the game, the players enter pertinent data about themselves into the Tangrams web interface. Students input pertinent data about themselves using the web interface of the Tangrams game. After each student plays the game, their data is matched with their puzzle completion time.
Before delving into data analysis, the students need to translate the research question into testable hypotheses. In this case, they want to see if the difference between the means of two populations—MSE majors and other majors—is statistically significant. The null H0 and alternative Ha hypotheses would be: MSE majors have the same Tangrams average completion time as students in other majors.
MSE majors and other majors do not have the same Tangrams average completion time. Now the students input their data into a Minitab worksheet to calculate basic summary statistics. Students can input class data from the Tangrams lab into a Minitab worksheet. They can also select to view other summary statistics, such as median, mode, variance, and many others.
This histogram makes it easy to see the distribution of the completion times for other majors, including the high and low times, as well as the mean completion time. Next, to determine if there is a statistical difference between the means of MSE majors and other majors, the students conduct a two sample hypothesis test in Minitab.
Results In this case, for type of major, the p-value for the two-sample t-test was 0. Therefore, the class would fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is no significant difference between the two population means. This seems to imply that MSE majors outperformed other majors.Hypothesis writing powerpoint for kids.
While Science Kids at Home makes every effort to provide activity ideas that are safe and fun for children it is your responsibility to choose the activities that are safe in your own home. Students will analyze information from a variety of sources in order to create a hypothesis about the origin of an interesting family artifact.
Activity . Students learn about scientific hypotheses. They are given tips for developing hypotheses and practice properly wording a hypothesis. Finally, they are presented with a specific problem and must respond to a series of questions that help them arrive at two hypotheses.
Students learn about scientific hypotheses. They are given tips for developing hypotheses and practice properly wording a hypothesis. Finally, they are presented with a specific problem and must respond to a series of questions that help them arrive.
Video: Hypothesis Lesson for Kids: Definition & Examples Doing science experiments can be fun! But before you start your experiment, you need to make a hypothesis. This activity requires a 2 liter bottle, water and tape (masking or painting).
Prepare the bottle by drilling three holes vertically in a Continue reading Hypothesis Practice- Get your Students to Practice Hypothesis Writing →.