Infancy and early childhood developement

Grossman, Technology Journalist and author or editor of several books including Net.

Infancy and early childhood developement

Gender Development in Infancy and Childhood In utero, the brain develops rapidly, and an infant is born with essentially all of the nerve cells it will ever have; brain development is particularly rapid during the third trimester.

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However, after birth, neural connections must form in order for the newborn ultimately to walk, talk, and remember. Mark Rosenweig and David Krech conducted an experiment to demonstrate the importance of enriched environments during development. They compared rats raised alone to those that were allowed to use a playground in the company of other rats.

Other studies have demonstrated that stimulation provided by touch or massage benefits both premature babies and infant rats, a fact that argues for providing an enriched environment for a developing organism.

Infancy and early childhood developement

Infants are born with a surprising number of unlearned innate reflexes, that is, unlearned responses to stimuli. The Moro reflex is an outstretching of the arms and legs in response to a loud noise or sudden change in the environment.

The Babinski reflex is an outward projection of the big toe and fanning of the others when the sole of the foot is touched. The sucking reflex occurs when an object touches the lips. The grasping reflex is the vigorous grasping of an object that touches the palm.

The plantar reflex is the curling under of the toes when the ball of the foot is touched. Physicians sometimes use these reflexes to assess the rate of development.

Gradually, learned responses replace the reflex actions as an infant becomes more responsive to the environment. Although the rate of motor development can vary, the developmental sequence is the same.

The growth and body development from infant to child occurs in a cephalocaudal direction; that is, the head and upper trunk develop before the lower trunk and feet. Sensory and perceptual development Newborn infants can and do respond to a wide range of environmental stimuli.

All human senses function to some degree at birth; touch is the most highly developed and vision is the least developed sense.

At the age of 3 months, however, most infants can recognize a photograph of their mother.

Social Science Dictionary with a Durkheim bias

An adult mother or experimenter stands on one side of the glass bridge and calls to the child, who is on the other. The term cognitive development refers to the development of the ability to think and to mentally represent events and to manipulate symbols.

He believed that every behavioral act requires two dynamic processes of adaptation: Assimilation is the process of acquiring new information about the world and fitting it to already acquired information.

Piaget, who had a strong biological background, proposed four stages of development: According to Piaget, During the sensorimotor stage birth to age 2 infants develop their ability to coordinate motor actions with sensory activity.

Also during this stage, children acquire the concept of object permanence, realizing that objects still exist even when the objects are not present. During the preoperational stage ages 2 to 7 yearschildren improve in the use of mental images and symbolic thought.

Infancy and early childhood developement

During the concrete operational stage ages 7 to 11 yearschildren begin to develop many concepts and to organize the concepts into classes and categories. During the formal operational stage ages 11 years and beyondchildren learn to use and to manipulate abstract symbolic concepts, develop and mentally test hypotheses, and work mental problems.

That is, they can reason. Lawrence Kohlberg proposed that moral development occurs in three levels, with two stages at each level. At stage 1, punishment orientation, judgments are guided by the prospect of punishment.

Carol Gilligan examined certain differences between the moral development of males and that of females. In younger children, she found that girls are more concerned with a morality based on caring and boys with a morality based on justice.

Social development begins at birth as a child forms an attachment a strong emotional bond with the primary caregiver susually the mother. Harry Harlow studied attachment deprivation with baby monkeys raised in isolation. Although their physical needs were met and they were given surrogate mothers made of cloth, these monkeys suffered severe behavior pathologies.Become an Agent of Change The PhD in Infant and Early Childhood Development (IECD) with emphases in mental health and developmental disorders is a multidisciplinary degree that includes mental health, education, occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech and language development, and the neuro.

Child Development Center (Facility # & ). College Heights Blvd. Ridgecrest, CA Phone: () The Center offers a developmentally appropriate program funded through the Department of Education.

Infants ( years) | Child Development | NCBDDD | CDC

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Infancy and Childhood - Human Development & Family Studies - Purdue University