Society Must Be Defended: He gives a summation of his approach to power: He suggests that we have to abandon the model of the Leviathan and study power at its infinitesimal points of usually material implementation, the techniques, and the tactics through which it circulates. Here is where his discussions on war and race enter in and become important to his broader arguments.
Ofirima Masquerade in Washington, D. Research Reports on Two Cultural Adaptations The term masquerade can refer to a masking performance, a masked performer, or the character embodied by the mask itself.
Masquerade is an important mode of cultural expression for several groups from Nigeria. The following are excerpts from their research reports. It's a macho thing," said Mr. Victor Emenuga, a member of the Umuchu cultural troupe, based in New Jersey.
The purpose of masquerade can be to entertain, to commend achievers, to chastise evil-doers, to bring messages of hope, peace, or impending disaster, to mourn the dead or to receive a special newborn, or to grace a ceremonial occasion like a festival.
To these ends, its elaborately created physical presence evokes a great range of feelings, from approbation and appreciation to fear and awe. A good masquerade has admirable human or animal features and is a great dancer, too.
Men use masquerade as an outlet for their macho energy. They are strong enough to invoke and mingle with the spirits of the dead, but women are not. Of course, it makes them feel good about themselves, and life goes on.
Traditionally, masquerades have the highest level of freedom in a village. You cannot fight a masquerade. You cannot unmask it. And you have no right to say the name of the person under the mask, even if you know who it is. Once under the mask, he becomes sacred, a person used to embody the spirit.
Smithsonian Photo by Jeff Tinsley As more Africans make the United States their permanent residence, some adapt their traditional festivals to their new homes.
New Yam and New Year festivals are now common. In addition to dance, food, and pageantry, some festivals feature masquerades. For instance, the Ikeji festival of the Arondizuogu community one of the Igbo clans in Nigeria in New York cannot be complete without the Ikeji masquerades. Sometimes adaptation seems the only alternative for surviving.
In Igboland there is no one-man masquerade, but we have it here in the United States, thanks to the use of audio cassettes for background music. The Ikeji festival masquerades are among the few that still try to preserve their tradition.
But they come out only once a year, in summer. They still uphold their myths. They have only a few hours of Ikeji masquerade in New York, as opposed to four days in Arondizuogu.
They don't have enough skilled drummers to back up their performances, so they occasionally resort to taped music.
To avoid lawsuits, they limit open interaction with the audience. At least our masquerades don't wear socks. Spirits don't even have feet. They can float in the air.
Socks are very human; they are foreign goods as well. Traditional masquerades would never wear them. Mary "Molly" Uzo is a Nigerian-born community cultural activist who has researched and presented programs in upstate New York on African masquerade traditions including those of her own Igbo ethnic group from southeastern Nigeria.
The headpiece that is worn indicates the kind of masquerade being presented. Members of the Rivers State Forum, an organization named after a province in southeastern Nigeria, staged the Ofirima during their annual outing in Washington, D.
In the traditional outfit of an appropriately dressed masquerade, the headpiece is a faithful model of the ferocious fish. It was carved by a local resident. The many male dancers who accompany him were also in their proper traditional attire, because every Rivers man living here has at least one such outfit in his possession.
This Ibibio masquerade was danced at the Folklife Festival by members of Akwa Ibom, an organization of area residents with origins in the Cross Rivers State in Nigeria.During the Egungun festivals, the masquerades prays, warns and give message to the rulers and the society as a whole with the voices that are believed to be that of the ancestors.
They go about with whips and flogs anyone that stands in the way of the sprits. Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collège de France, He starts the lectures defining “subjugated knowledges,” as those that have been both written .
In the Ejagham society of Cross River, the task of detecting witches and wizards rested with the Echi-Obasi-njom (the masquerade), it carried out this usually function in wheeling, gliding dance a by the society.
Dec 14, · Most African masquerades are bound to an association like a group, ethnic/ demographic area, religion usually old African traditional practices, secret society or family based society.
The association based on group could be a socio- cultural group, ethnic Reviews: 4. Mysterious Purposes of Masquerades At a masquerade, all of societies rules could be broken. Many of the participants felt comfort behind the mast and could get away breaking the rules.
Venetian Mask Society is home to some of Italy's finest Venetian Masks and Masquerade Masks imported straight from Venice. We offer eye masks, as well as feather, luxury, stick, joker, full face, carnival, leather, and nose masks and colored hooded cloaks.