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The Court ruled that the claim should be dismissed on the basis of the Business Judgment Rule. The BJR, which was recently formally adopted in Israeli jurisprudence, sets forth that the Court shall not criticize decisions made by an officer of a company if that decision was made in an informed manner, in favor of the company and without a conflict of interests.

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See Article History Japanese language, a language isolate i. It is primarily spoken throughout the Japanese archipelago ; there are also some 1. Since the midth century, no nation other than Japan has used Japanese as a first or a second language. General considerations Hypotheses of genetic affiliation Japanese is the only major language whose genetic affiliation is not known.

General considerations

The hypothesis relating Japanese to Korean remains the strongest, but other hypotheses also have been advanced. Some attempt to relate Japanese to the language groups of South Asia such as the Austronesianthe Austroasiaticand the Tibeto-Burman family of the Sino-Tibetan languages.

Beginning in the second half of the 20th century, efforts were focused more on the origins of the Japanese language than on its genetic affiliation per se; specifically, linguists attempted to reconcile some conflicting linguistic traits. An increasingly popular theory along that line posits that the mixed nature of Japanese results from its Austronesian lexical substratum and the Altaic grammatical superstratum.

As the Yayoi culture was introduced to Japan from the Asian continent about bce, a language of southern Korea began to spread eastward from the southern island of Kyushu along with that culturewhich also introduced to Japan iron and bronze implements and the cultivation of rice.

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Because the migration from Korea did not take place on a large scale, the new language did not eradicate certain older lexical items, though it was able to change the grammatical structure of the existing language.

Thus, that theory maintains, Japanese must be said to be genetically related to Korean and perhaps ultimately to Altaic languagesthough it contains Austronesian lexical residues.

The Altaic theory, however, is newspaper editing symbols for academic writing widely accepted. Different dialects are often mutually unintelligible; the speakers of the Kagoshima dialect of Kyushu are not understood by the majority of the people of the main island of Honshu.

Likewise, northern dialect speakers from such places as Aomori and Akita are not understood by most people in metropolitan Tokyo or anywhere in western Japan.

Japanese dialectologists agree that a major dialect boundary separates Okinawan dialects of the Ryukyu Islands from the rest of the mainland dialects.

The latter are then divided into either three groups—Eastern, Western, and Kyushu dialects—or simply Eastern and Western dialects, the latter including the Kyushu group.

A standardized written language has been a feature of compulsory educationwhich started in Modern mobility and mass media also have helped to level dialectal differences and have had a strong effect on the accelerated rate of the loss of local dialects.

If the history of the language were to be split in two, the division would fall somewhere between the 12th and 16th centuries, when the language shed most of its Old Japanese characteristics and acquired those of the modern language.

The Writing Lab

It is common, however, to divide the 1,year history into four or five periods; Old Japanese up to the 8th centuryLate Old Japanese 9th—11th centuryMiddle Japanese 12th—16th centuryEarly Modern Japanese 17th—18th centuryand Modern Japanese 19th century to the present.

Despite that stability, however, a number of features distinguish Old Japanese from Modern Japanese. Some maintain, however, that Old Japanese had only five vowels and attribute the differences in vowel quality to the preceding consonants. There is also some indication that Old Japanese had a remnant form of vowel harmony.

Vowel harmony is said to exist when certain vowels call for other specific vowels within a certain domain, generally, within a word. That possibility is stressed by the proponents of the theory that Japanese is related to the Altaic family, where vowel harmony is a widespread phenomenon.

The wholesale shift of p to h and to w between vowels also took place relatively early, such that Modern Japanese has no native or Sino-Japanese word that begins with p.

The remnant forms with the original p are seen among some Okinawan dialects; e. Syntax Japanese syntax also has remained relatively stable, maintaining its characteristic subject—object—verb SOV sentence structure. A notable change in that domain is the obliteration of the distinction between the conclusive form—the finite form that concludes a sentence—and the noun-modifying form exhibited by certain predicates.

The distinction between conclusive forms and noun-modifying forms played an important role in the phenomenon of syntactic concord that, for example, called for the noun-modifying forms of predicate even in concluding the predication when a subject or some other word was marked by particles such as the emphatic zo or the interrogative ka or ya.

That system of syntactic concord deteriorated in Middle Japanese, and the distinction between the conclusive forms and the noun-modifying forms was also lost, the latter dominating the former. A single most important development in the history of Japanese is the acquisition of the nativized writing systems that took place between the 8th and the 10th centuries.

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The Japanese vocabulary has been constantly enriched by loanwords —from Chinese in earlier times and from European languages in more recent history. Linguistic characteristics of modern Japanese Phonology In Japanese phonologytwo suprasegmental units—the syllable and the mora—must be recognized.

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A mora is a rhythmic unit based on length. It plays an important role especially in the accentual system, but its mundane utilization is most familiar in the composition of Japanese verse forms such as haiku and wakain which lines are defined in terms of the number of moras; a haiku consists of three lines of five, seven, and five moras.

These are the first of the double consonants—e.Jul 23 hours ago egg drop lab helps phd course emphasizes writing something close, annotated bibliography: you will need to recognize. Standard copy-editing symbols after manuscript submission, the document without the quotation marks as well.

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