He worked in Tokyo and London for 17 years and served as a Managing Director for 8 years. Among the innovators and early risk takers in the credit default swap, credit index Tracers and CDX and tranched risk credit markets, Jon served as an ISDA committee member responsible for the first standardized credit default swap contract.
Our experience is that terms vary among investment banking firms but industry norms have been established and the negotiation of terms is generally not difficult.
Fees are a totally different issue. Fees charged by investment banking firms for these transactions have varied greatly based on the size, expertise and reputation of investment banking firm, the current market, the value of the business, the goals of the business owner, etc. FEES Fee arrangements generally involve two components—a non-refundable retainer and a success fee based upon the amount of value received by the seller.
Most investment bankers will agree that the retainer is fully creditable against any success fee earned upon closing. Most fee structures are based on a percentage of total value received, have a minimum fee on the lower side of the middle market regardless of value received and have an increasing fee percentage based on the sale process resulting in a value greater than agreed upon hurdles.
Success fees are usually based on the total value of a business and almost always are based on the value paid by the buyer not the proceeds realized by the seller. This has numerous implications. We typically see success fees in a very competitive market starting as low as.
To do so, it has become commonplace over the past decade or so to provide the investment banker with a greater success fee for achieving a value above pre-set hurdles. But there are many items that should be excluded from value such as compensation for services rendered as an employee of the buyer and fair market lease payments for real estate or equipment leased by the seller or its affiliates to the buyer.
One of the more highly negotiated issues is when the investment-banking fee is paid.
The first draft of every investment banking agreement will call for the fee to be paid in full at closing. If the business is sold for cash, that is a fair term. But the more typical sale will have one or more components of deferred value such as a promissory note, cash deposited in an indemnity escrow, or a working capital adjustment.
We believe the investment banker should be paid when the seller receives cash. This is not a popular view with investment bankers and often leads to a significant negotiation.
Although we highly recommend retaining an investment banker, be careful. Investment banking agreements are complex and involve significant amounts of money.
These agreements need to be thought through to align the interests of the parties and clearly identify the expected deliverables.Capital market instruments are responsible for generating funds for companies, corporations and sometimes national governments. These are used by the investors to make a profit out of their respective markets.
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