In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Edited by Karl Hack and Tobias Rettig. As with most collections of essays, this is a difficult book to review. The essays emerge from a panel on colonial armies that was held in
Postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their own voices, and thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language, society and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.
Colonialism was presented as "the extension of civilization", which ideologically justified the self-ascribed racial and cultural superiority of the Western world over the non-Western world.
That such a divinely established, natural harmony among the human races of the world would be possible, because everyone has an assigned cultural identitya social place, and an economic role within an imperial colony. The regeneration of the inferior or degenerate races, by the superior races is part of the providential order of things for humanity.
Regere imperio populos is our vocation. Pour forth this all-consuming activity onto countries, which, like China, are crying aloud for foreign conquest. Turn the adventurers who disturb European society into a ver sacrum, a horde like those of the Franks, the Lombards, or the Normans, and every man will be in his right role.
Nature has made a race of workers, the Chinese race, who have wonderful manual dexterity, and almost no sense of honour; govern them with justice, levying from them, in return for the blessing of such a government, an ample allowance for the conquering race, and they will be satisfied; a race of tillers of the soil, the Negro; treat him with kindness and humanity, and all will be as it should; a race of masters and soldiers, the European race.
Let each do what he is made for, and all will be well. Especially in the colonization of the Far East and in the late-nineteenth century Scramble for Africathe representation of a homogeneous European identity justified colonization.
Hence, Belgium and Britain, and France and Germany proffered theories of national superiority that justified colonialism as delivering the light of civilization to unenlightened peoples.
Notably, la mission civilisatricethe self-ascribed 'civilizing mission' of the French Empire, proposed that some races and cultures have a higher purpose in life, whereby the more powerful, more developed, and more civilized races have the right to colonize other peoples, in service to the noble idea of "civilization" and its economic benefits.
In postcolonial literaturethe anti-conquest narrative analyzes the identity politics that are the social and cultural perspectives of the subaltern colonial subjects—their creative resistance to the culture of the colonizer ; how such cultural resistance complicated the establishment of a colonial society; how the colonizers developed their postcolonial identity; and how neocolonialism actively employs the Us-and-Them binary social relation to view the non-Western world as inhabited by The Other.
The neocolonial discourse of geopolitical homogeneity relegating the decolonized peoples, their cultures, and their countries, to an imaginary place, such as "the Third World ", an over-inclusive term that usually comprises continents and seas, i.
Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Oceania.
The postcolonial critique analyzes the self-justifying discourse of neocolonialism and the functions philosophic and political of its over-inclusive terms, to establish the factual and cultural inaccuracy of homogeneous concepts, such as "the Arabs " and "the First World ", " Christendom " and "the Ummah ", actually comprise heterogeneous peoples, cultures, and geography, and that accurate descriptions of the world's peoples, places, and things require nuanced and accurate terms.
As such, the terms postcolonial and postcolonialism denote aspects of the subject matter, which indicate that the decolonized world is an intellectual space "of contradictions, of half-finished processes, of confusions, of hybridityand of liminalities".
Theory, Practice, PoliticsHelen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins clarified the denotational functions, among which: The term post-colonialism—according to a too-rigid etymology—is frequently misunderstood as a temporal concept, meaning the time after colonialism has ceased, or the time following the politically determined Independence Day on which a country breaks away from its governance by another state.
A theory of post-colonialism must, then, respond to more than the merely chronological construction of post-independence, and to more than just the discursive experience of imperialism.
Its societal effects—the imposition of a subjugating colonial identity—are harmful to the mental health of the native peoples who were subjugated into colonies. Fanon wrote the ideological essence of colonialism is the systematic denial of "all attributes of humanity" of the colonized people.
Such dehumanization is achieved with physical and mental violence, by which the colonist means to inculcate a servile mentality upon the natives. For Fanon the natives must violently resist colonial subjugation.
Said's concept which he also termed "Orientalism" is that the cultural representations generated with the us-and-them binary relation are social constructswhich are mutually constitutive and cannot exist independent of each other, because each exists on account of and for the other.
Orientalism thus conflated and reduced the non—Western world into the homogeneous cultural entity known as "the East".
Therefore, in service to the colonial type of imperialism, the us-and-them Orientalist paradigm allowed European scholars to represent the Oriental World as inferior and backward, irrational and wild, as opposed to a Western Europe that was superior and progressive, rational and civil—the opposite of the Oriental Other.
Madhavan said that "Said's passionate thesis in that book, now an 'almost canonical study', represented Orientalism as a 'style of thought' based on the antinomy of East and West in their world-views, and also as a 'corporate institution' for dealing with the Orient.
That the applied power of such cultural knowledge allowed Europeans to rename, re-define, and thereby control Oriental peoples, places, and things, into imperial colonies. Hence, To the extent that Western scholars were aware of contemporary Orientals or Oriental movements of thought and culture, these were perceived either as silent shadows to be animated by the Orientalist, brought into reality by them, or as a kind of cultural and international proletariat useful for the Orientalist's grander interpretive activity.
Said replied that the European West applied Orientalism as a homogeneous form of The Otherin order to facilitate the formation of the cohesive, collective European cultural identity denoted by the term "The West".
Therefore, descriptions of the Orient by the Occident lack material attributes, grounded within land. This inventive, or imaginative interpretation subscribes female characteristics to the Orient and plays into fantasies that are inherent within the West's alter ego.
It should be understood that this process draws creativity, amounting an entire domain and discourse. In Orientalism, Said mentions the production of "philology [the study of the history of languages], lexicography [dictionary making], history, biology, political and economic theory, novel-writing and lyric poetry" p.
Therefore, there is an entire industry that exploits the Orient for its own subjective purposes that lack a native and intimate understanding. Such industries become institutionalized and eventually become a resource for manifest Orientalism, or a compilation of misinformation about the Orient.
The ideology of Empire was hardly ever a brute jingoism; rather, it made subtle use of reason, and recruited science and history to serve its ends.Before World War II it was stated fairly, “The sun never set on the British Empire.” For decades, this was true: the British colonial Empire touched all corners of the globe.
After the War concluded, however, a worldwide process of decolonization commenced in which Britain granted independence to all of its major colonies, beginning notably in India. R. Betts, France and Decolonisation, () Course Structure.
Semester 1. Decolonisation: Indochina, Work with documents: Indochina ; Semester 2 Long essay presentations & Conclusion: Assessment: 60% examination - two 3-hour papers. In many cases, as in Indonesia and French Indochina, these nationalists had been guerrillas fighting the Japanese after European surrenders, or were former members of colonial military establishments.
This essay aims at addressing the different aspects of anti-colonialism in the s and s, both in the way it was expressed in the tion of decolonisation is provided in Betts () and Rothermund (), both of and Indochina, and Dutch colonies such as Indonesia.
Despite these significant anti-. This page is designed to help you with some of your revision topics (Section 1) and to show you how the entire casahistoria site can help you with your historical investigations and history based extended essay. ASIA-PACIFIC SECURITY Spring Tuesdays & Thursdays am March.
The essay should not exceed 2, words/c. 7 pages double spaced. • The final exam date is in early to mid-May, at a date to be announced by the Registrar. KOREAN WAR TO 1ST INDOCHINA WAR): DECOLONISATION AND BIPOLARISATION.